Public companies, firms that have their shares trade on an exchange, must make their financial reports available for investors to research every quarter, or four times a year. In an earnings report, a firm must supply revenue, expenses, net income, earnings per share, income statement details, cash flow, and balance sheet. Usually the months following the quarter-end are busiest, as this is when most companies will report their earnings.
An earnings season refers to the time period in which public companies report their audited or unaudited financial results as required by law. This typically occurs at the end of each calendar quarter, four times a year, including year-end numbers.
In recent earnings seasons, corporate reporting has shown solid financial performances, especially from large-cap blue chip companies. The standout in their financial reports over the last three earnings seasons is their strong balance sheets with large cash positions.